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CASE STUDY DETAIL: Nepal

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Coverage

Nepal

Project time

Oct2013-Mar2014 (ver.1). Apr-Nov2016 (upgrade)

Objectives/scope

Estimation and spatial distribution of the risk of forest degradation induced by excessive fuelwood extractions in Nepal.

Institutional settings

2013-2014: REDD - Forestry and Climate Change Cell of Nepal. Project "Development of a Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System for Emissions and Removals". Project implemented by Agriconsulting SpA. 2016: FAO/UN-REDD Programme Targeted Support (UNJP/GLO/386/UNJ).Data analysis for estimating emissions from forest degradation due to fuelwood harvesting in the context of Nepalís Forest Reference Level (FRL) construction

Scale/resolution

Raster cell resolution = 100 m. Administrative = Village Development Committee (VDC, 3,986 units)

Demand features

Detailed distribution of rural and urban population based on 2011 census statistics and relevant topographic map features. Fuelwood demand (charcoal consumption being negligible) was estimated for household sector including cremations, commercial and industrial sectors.

Supply features

2013-2014: Analysis based on preliminary land cover map and partial inventory results. 2016: Analysis of supply entirely updated using new land cover data and georeferenced field plot data for the entire country. Minimum, medium and maximum supply variants were estimated/mapped based on confidence intervals. The legal accessibility was based on national data on Protected areas and Buffer Zones. The physical accessibility, extremely important for a mountain country, was based on new DTM elaboration for slope, most detailed communication network data, including trails and footpaths, and estimated friction parameters for all land cover types and communication features, expressed as estimated transport time (round trip with loaded return, in minutes per Km).

Integration features

The supply/demand balance was estimated and mapped at pixel level and in a local context of 3 km. Commercial balance and commercial surplus were mapped considering the resources assumed economically viable, i.e. presenting an adequate stock and rotation period.

Woodshed/bio-shed analysis

Woodshed analysis was carried out through weighted interpolation using Dinamica EGO processing environment, combining fuelwood demand from 26 major deficit sites and friction parameters. In order to estimate the impact of current fuelwood harvesting, the analysis focused on the probable harvesting zone, rather than the theoretical sustainable supply zone. 2016: The probable harvesting zones and degradation rates were reviewed entirely and estimated/mapped for alternative scenarios based on various assumptions. A sensitivity analysis of key variables and assumptions including demand patterns, supply variants, transport time thresholds, market mechanisms and use of land cover change by-products.

Integration with other aspects

Not implemented

Findings/conclusions

2013-2014: Besides the contribution to wood energy planning in Nepal, the study contributed to the MRV system and more in general to the REDD process through (preliminary) definition of the areas under risk of forest degradation due to excessive fuelwood harvesting. 2016 update/upgrade: The sensitivity analysis allowed the definition of the areas and the expected degradation rates due to unsustainable harvesting according to Leading Scenario as well as to the lowest and highest degradation scenarios.

Publications

R. Drigo, Gehendra Karki and Saroj K. Sharma. 2014. WISDOM Nepal and contribution to MRV. Consultancy report of Project "Development of a Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System for Emissions and Removals". Project implemented by Agriconsulting SpA. Drigo R. 2016. Data analysis for estimating emissions from forest degradation due to fuelwood harvesting in the context of Nepalís Forest Reference Level (FRL). FAO/UN-REDD Programme Targeted Support (UNJP/GLO/386/UNJ) Ė Nepal.